Formatting Guidelines

Paper Format:  First page should have name, class, and date of assignment, single-spaced, in upper left corner.  Title comes next and should be centered and double-spaced.  The body of the paper should be double-spaced, with the first line of each paragraph indented ½ inch.  Do not put extra space at the end of each paragraph.  Use Times or a similar serif font.  One inch margins all around (NB - MS Word defaults to 1¼", so make sure to change it).  Put page numbers at the bottom of each page.

Citations:  Ancient sources should cited parenthetically in the body of the paper, whether you are quoting or simply drawing information from them.  Cite the ancient sources even if you are also citing a modern source for the same passage.  Use the abbreviations given in The Oxford Classical Dictionary - a list of the most common is below.  Authors with only one work (eg., Herodotus, Thucydides) are identified by name only.  Give the translation you use in your bibliography. Examples:

    Herodotus, Histories 8.15 = (Hdt. 8.15)

    Plutarch, Life of Pericles 25 = (Plut. Per. 25)

    Xenophon, Hellenica 2.3.2 = (Xen. Hell. 2.3.2)

    Sources in the Austin sourcebook should also be cited parenthetically, ie (Austin 118).

Modern sources should be given in footnotes, consecutively numbered through the entire paper.  Avoid plagiarism and cite whenever you are quoting directly, paraphrasing, summarizing, or simply stating facts you got from another’s work.  Footnotes in the body of your text should come after any punctuation, eg: As so and so argues.1  Give the author’s last name, date of the work, and page numbers you refer to in the note itself.  Examples:

   1 Green 1996, 203-13.

   2 Brunt 1980, 480-3. 

   3 Flower 2004, 325.

For the Oxford Classical Dictionary, use the article title and cite as follows:

    4 OCD4 s.v. Iulius Caesar (1), Gaius.

The bibliography (not required for primary source papers where the professor gives you all the sources) must give full references to all sources you cite, as well as the translations of ancient works that you use.  Put it on a separate page after the body of your paper - the bibliography does not count towards the total number of pages.  Follow the format given in The Chicago Manual of Style and Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.  Examples below are for an article in a journal, an article in a book, a book, a print translation, and an online version of a print translation:

Brunt, P. A.  “On Historical Fragments and Epitomes.”  Classical Quarterly N. S. 30 (1980): 477-494.

Flower, Harriet I.  “Spectacle and Political Culture in the Roman Republic.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, ed. Harriet I. Flower.  Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.

Green, Peter.  The Greco-Persian Wars.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Aristophanes, Alan H. Sommerstein, trans.  Lysistrata and Other Plays.  Rev. ed.  New York: Penguin, 2002.

Polybius, W. R. Paton, trans.  The Histories.  6 vols.  Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1922-1927.  Accessed at

Standard abbreviations for some of the most common ancient authors and their works - for a complete list see OCD4:

Aeschylus = Aesch.
    Agamemnon = Ag.
    Choephoroe (Libation Bearers) = Cho.
    Eumenides = Eum.
    Persians = Pers.
    Prometheus Bound = PV
    Seven Against Thebes = Sept.
    Suppliants = Supp.

Ammianus Marcellinus = Amm. Marc.

Appian = App.
    (Bellum Civile) Civil Wars = B Civ.

Arrian = Arr.
    Anabasis of Alexander = Anab.

Caesar = Caes.
    The Civil War (Bellum Civile) = B Civ.
    The Gallic War (Bellum Gallicum) = B Gall.

Cicero = Cic.
    Letters to Atticus = Att.
    Letters to Friends = Fam.
    Letters to Quintus = Q Fr.

Curtius Rufus, Quintus = Curt.

Dio Cassius = Dio Cass.

Diodorus Siculus = Diod.

Euripides = Eur.
    Bacchae = Bacch.
    Electra = El.
    Hippolytus = Hipp.
    Iphigenia at Tauris = IT
    Medea = Med.
    Orestes = Or.
    Supppliants = Supp.

Herodotus = Hdt.

Hesiod = Hes.
    Theogony = Theog.

Homer = Hom.
    Iliad = Il.
    Odyssey = Od.

Livy = Livy

Luc. = Lucan

Pers. = Persius

Pet. = Petronius
    Sat. = Satyricn

Plato = Pl.
    Apology = Ap.
    Republic = Rep.

Plutarch = Plut.
    Life of Alexander = Alex.
    Life of Caesar = Caesar
    Life of Cicero = Cic.
    Life of Demosthenes = Dem.
    Life of Lycurgus = Lyc.
    Life of Lysander = Lys.
    Life of Marius = Mar.
    Life of Pericles = Per.
    Life of Pompey = Pomp.
    Life of Solon = Sol.
    Life of Sulla = Sull.
    Life of Themistocles = Them.

Polybius = Poly. 

Sallust = Sall.
    War of Catiline = Cat.
    War with Jugurtha = Iug.

Sen. = Senca (the Younger)
    Apocol. = Apocolocyntosis
    Clem. = De Clementia (On Mercy)
    Ep. = Epistulae (Letters to Lucilius)
    HF = Hercules Furens
    Ira = De Ira (On Anger)
    Med. = Medea
    Oed. = Oedipus
    Ph. = Phaedra
    Prov. = De Providentia (On Providence)
    QNat. = Quaestiones naturales (Natural Questions)
    Tr. = Troades (Trojan Women)
    Th. = Thyestes

Sophocles = Soph.
    Antigone = Ant.
    Electra = El.
    Oedipus at Colonus = OC
    Oedipus the King = OT
    Philoctetes = Phil.

Suetonius = Suet.
    Augustus = Aug.
    Caligula = Calig.
    Claudius = Claud.
    Domitian = Dom.
    Julius Caesar = Iul.
    Nero = Ner.
    Tiberius = Tib.
    Titus = Tit.
    Vespasian = Vesp.

Tacitus = Tac.
    Agricola = Agr.
    Annals = Ann.
    Dialogues of the Orators = Dial.
    Germany = Germ.
    Histories = Hist.

Thucydides = Thuc.

Xenophon = Xen.
    Agesilaus = Ages.
    Anabasis = An.
    Hellenica = Hell.
    Memorabilia of Socrates = Mem.