The Roman Republic

HIST 4023 • HIST 5523 / Fall 2022

The Chiaramonti Julius Caesar - 30-20 BCE

Bust of Julius Caesar

Instructor: Dr. Charles E. Muntz
Time: MWF 10:45-11:35 am
Place: 203 Science & Engineering (SCEN)
Dr. Muntz's Office: 408 Old Main
Office Hours: M 1:00-2:30 and by appointment
Phone: (479) 575-5891


History of Rome from its origins in the eighth century BCE down to the fall of the Republic in the first century BCE. Topics include the sources for Roman history, the development, functioning, and ultimate failure of republican government, the Roman army, and Roman imperialism in Italy and the Mediterranean.

Learning Outcomes (Undergraduates)

  • Students will be able to evaluate the ancient sources for the Roman Republic and the problems with using them.
  • Students will understand the evolution the political system of the Roman Republic.
  • Students will understand the development of the Roman Empire during the middle and late Republican period.
  • Students will be able to describe the relationship of the Romans and Greeks during the late Republic

Learning Outcomes (Graduates) - all of the above, plus

  • Engage with and evaluate modern scholarship on the Roman Republic
  • Assess historiographic trends on the Roman Republic

Covid Policies

This is a face-to-face class and regular attendance is very important. However, due to the Covid-19 pandemic I will be recording all lectures. If you feel sick or are exposed to someone and have to quarantine, DO NOT come to class. Email me right away and get tested for Covid-19. Testing is available at Pat Walker Health Center, 479-575-4451, but you can also now get at home tests that give you results in 15-30 minutes. You can order these tests for FREE or find them at pharmacies or online.

Once I know that you cannot come to class, I will give you access to the lecture recordings for the period you are sick or quarantined. I will also make accomodations or alternative assignments for missed discussion days, exams, and paper deadlines, but again you must email me and ask. Lectures will be made available on - you must be signed into this site for me to give you access. It normally takes several hours after the normal class time for lecture recordigns to become available.

In the event that I have to quarantine, class will be held remotely over Zoom (assuming I’m well enough) - I’ll distribute the meeting invites if necessary.

Wearing a mask while in class is highly recommended for your protection and for the protection of those around you. Masks are available in classrooms and many public areas around campus. Eating and drinking is not permitted during class. If you require accommodations due to a disability, please contact the Center for Educational Access.


Exams: There will be an in-class midterm on October 3 consisting of short IDs and an essay, and a final exam on Monday, December 12 from 10:15-12:15, consisting of essays. Study guides will be made available.

Short Paper: A 1600-1800 word paper comparing an extract from Livy with Livy's original source is due on September 16. Assignment and texts can be found here

Long Paper (Undergraduates): A 3200-3600 word paper analyzing how Livy's presentation of Roman history in his first three books was influenced by the events in the late Republican period. Due December 8. Assignment can be found here.

Long Paper (Graduates): A 3500-4000 word research paper on a topic of the student's choice, in consultation with the professor. Due December 8.
Bibliographic Resources
Paper Grading Policies
Formatting Guidelines

Class Discussion: Certain class periods are set aside for class discussions. Questions based on the primary sources to get things started can be found here, but feel free to raise other issues or questions on your own.
Grading policies for discussions

Attendance: Regular attendance is important. I will allow each student to miss up to three classes without penalty to cover things like illness and religious observances. However, absences on discussion days or days when graded material is due are not permitted except by prior arrangement or in case of emergencies. Please email me in advance if you are going to miss class. For each absence after the first three, unless there is a serious problem, I will lower the final participation grade by 10 points. If you do have to miss a class, make sure you meet with another student to find out what you missed!

Grade Breakdown:
Participation: 15% 
Paper 1: 15% 
Paper 2: 30% 
Midterm: 15% 
Final: 25%

Reading Materials

Required Texts:
Berry, D. H. Cicero: Defence Speeches. ISBN 0199537909.
Berry, D. H. Cicero: Political Speeches. ISBN 0199540136.
Luce, T. J. Livy: The Rise of Rome, Books 1-5. ISBN 0199540047.
Scott-Kilvert, Ian. Polybius: The Rise of the Roman Empire. ISBN 0140443622.
Woodman, A. J. Sallust: Catiline's War, The Jugurthine War, Histories. ISBN 9780140449488.

Other texts will be made available via links under the Daily Topics

Super resource if you need to look up a person or topic (much better than Wikipedia or other web sources):
The Oxford Classical Dictionary


Academic Integrity: As a core part of its mission, the University of Arkansas provides students with the opportunity to further their educational goals through programs of study and research in an environment that promotes freedom of inquiry and academic responsibility. Accomplishing this mission is only possible when intellectual honesty and individual integrity prevail.

Each University of Arkansas student is required to be familiar with and abide by the University’s ‘Academic Integrity Policy’ which may be found at Students with questions about how these policies apply to a particular course or assignment should immediately contact their instructor.

Equal Access: University of Arkansas Academic Policy Series 1520.10 requires that students with disabilities are provided reasonable accommodations to ensure their equal access to course content. If you have a documented disability and require accommodations, please contact me privately at the beginning of the semester to make arrangements for necessary classroom adjustments. Please note, you must first verify your eligibility for these through the Center for Educational Access (contact 479-575-3104 or visit for more information on registration procedures).

Unauthorized Websites or Internet Resources: There are many websites claiming to offer study aids to students, but in using such websites, students could find themselves in violation of our University’s Academic Integrity and Code of Student Life policies. These websites include (but are not limited to) Quizlet, Bartleby, Course Hero, Chegg, and Clutch Prep. The U of A does not endorse the use of these products in an unethical manner. These websites may encourage students to upload course materials, such as test questions, individual assignments, and examples of graded material. Such materials are the intellectual property of instructors, the university, or publishers and may not be distributed without prior authorization. Furthermore, paying for academic work to be completed on your behalf and submitting it for academic credit is considered ‘contract cheating’ per the Academic Integrity Policy. Students found responsible for this type of violation face a grading penalty of ‘XF’ and a minimum one-semester academic suspension per the University of Arkansas Sanction Rubric. Please let me know if you are uncertain about the use of a website.

Unauthorized Recording by Student: Recording, or transmission of a recording, of all or any portion of a class is prohibited unless the recording is necessary for educational accommodation as expressly authorized and documented through the Center for Educational Access with proper advance notice to the instructor. Unauthorized recordings may violate federal law, state law, and university policies. Student-made recordings are subject to the same restrictions as instructor- made recordings. Failure to comply with this provision will result in a referral to the Office of Student Standards and Conduct for potential charges under the Code of Student Life. In situations where the recordings are used to gain an academic advantage, it may also be considered a violation of the University of Arkansas' academic integrity policy.

Recording of Class Lectures: By attending this class, student understands the course is being recorded and consents to being recorded for official university educational purposes. Be aware that incidental recording may also occur before and after official class times.

Unauthorized Use and Distribution of Class Notes: Third parties may attempt to connect with you to buy your notes and other course information from this class. I will consider distributing course materials to a third party without my authorization a violation of my intellectual property rights and/or copyright law as well as a violation of the University of Arkansas' academic integrity policy. Continued enrollment in this class signifies your intent to abide by the policy. Any violation will be reported to the Office of Academic Initiatives and Integrity.

Please be aware that such class materials that may have already been given to such third parties may contain errors, which could affect your performance or grade. If a third party should contact you regarding such an offer, I would appreciate your bringing this to my attention. We all play a part in creating a course climate of integrity.

Miscellaneous: Please turn off and put away all cell phones and any other non-course related items and finish any food you might be eating or drinking before coming into class. Please remain seated during class - if you need to use the lavatory, do so before or after class.

Emergency Procedures 

Many types of emergencies can occur on campus; instructions for specific emergencies such as severe weather, active shooter, or fire can be found at  

Severe Weather (Tornado Warning): Follow the directions of the instructor or emergency personnel. Seek shelter in the basement or interior room or hallway on the lowest floor, putting as many walls as possible between you and the outside. If you are in a multi-story building, and you cannot get to the lowest floor, pick a hallway in the center of the building. Stay in the center of the room, away from exterior walls, windows, and doors.

Violence / Active Shooter (CADD):

  • CALL: 9-1-1
  • AVOID: If possible, self-evacuate to a safe area outside the building.  Follow directions of police officers.
  • DENY: Barricade the door with desk, chairs, bookcases or any items.  Move to a place inside the room where you are not visible.  Turn off the lights and remain quiet.  Remain there until told by police it’s safe.
  • DEFEND: Use chairs, desks, cell phones or whatever is immediately available to distract and/or defend yourself and others from attack.

Daily Topics and Reading Assignments

Week 1
August 22: Introduction

August 24: Sources for the Early Roman Republic
    Livy Preface, Book 1.1-41

August 26: The Regal Period
    Livy 1.42-60

Week 2
August 29: Archaic Roman Religion
    Livy 2.1-42

August 31: Birth of the Res Publica
    Livy 2.43-65

September 2: Livy and Early Rome Discussion
    Review Livy Books 1 & 2

Week 3
September 5: Labor Day, No Class

September 7: Rome and the Latins
    Livy 3.1-35

September 9: The Conflict of Orders
    Livy 3.36-72

Week 4
September 12: XII Tables Discussion
    XII Tables Extracts

September 14: Patricians and Plebeians, Oh My!
    Livy 4.1-20

September 16: Conquest of Italy / First Paper Due

Week 5
September 19: Meet the Greeks!
    Plutarch: Life of Pyrrhus, esp. 13-34

September 21: The First Punic War
    Start Polybius Book 1

September 23: Polybius Discussion 1
    Finish Polybius Book 1

Week 6
September 26: The Second Punic War 1
    Polybius Book 3.1-15, 20-33, 50-56, 77-85, 106-118

September 28: The Second Punic War 2
    Polybius Books 9, 10, 11, & 15.15-18

September 30: Polybius Discussion 2
    Polybius Book 6 (you can skim chapters 19-42)

Week 7
October 3: Midterm

October 5: Rome & the Greeks

October 7: Carthago Delenda Est
    Appian: Punic Wars 11-20

Week 8
October 10: Rome & Greek Culture
    Plutarch: Life of Cato the Elder

October 12: The Problems of Empire
    Appian: Civil Wars 1.1-34

October 14: The Gracchi Brothers
    Plutarch: Lives of Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus (these are two separate lives)

Week 9
October 17: Fall Break

October 19: Marius and the New Roman Army
    Start Sallust: War with Jugurtha

October 21: Sallust Discussion 1
    Finish Sallust: War with Jugurtha

Week 10
October 24: Sulla
    Appian: Civil Wars 1.35-104

October 26: The Rise of Pompey the Great
    Cicero (Political Speeches): On the Command of Gnaeus Pompous
    Cicero (Political Speeches): Against Verres II.5 (start)

October 28: How (not) to Run a Roman Province Discussion
    Cicero (Political Speeches): Against Verres II.5 (finish)

Week 11
October 31: Cicero
    Cicero (Political Speeches): Against Catiline I & II

November 2: The Three-Headed Monster
    Cicero (Defence Speeches): For Archias

November 4: The Patrician Tribune
    Cicero (Defence Speeches): For Caelius

Week 12
November 7: The Coming of Civil War
    Cicero (Defence Speeches): For Milo (start)

November 9: Cicero Discussion
    Cicero (Defence Speeches): For Milo (finish)

November 11: Caesar v. Pompey
    Caesar: Civil War extracts

Week 13
November 14: The Dictator
    Cicero (Political Speeches): For Marcellus

November 16: Caesar Discussion
    Cassius Dio, Book 44

November 18: The Consul Antonius
    Cicero (Political Speeches): Philippic II

Week 14
November 21: Latin Literature in the Late Republic
    Catullus Selection

November 23: Thanksgiving Break

November 25: Thanksgiving Break

Week 15

November 28: Caesar's Heir
    Start Sallust: War with Catiline

November 30: Sallust Discussion 2
    Finish Sallust: War with Catiline

December 2: The Triumvirate
    Cassius Dio, Book 50

Week 16
December 5: Octavian v. Antony

December 7: Epilogue

December 8: Second Paper Due

December 12: Final Exam!